The 3 musketeers of the millinery .

The 3 first machines who rises the evolution of the production for a century
Willcox and Gibbs the straw and plain head
L Bulaski invent the shift of the zig zag on the model of the Willcox .
James Edward Allen Gibbs On June 2, 1857, he was awarded a patent for the first chain-stitch single-thread sewing machine. In partnership with James Willcox, Gibbs became a principal in Willcox & Gibbs Sewing Machine Company. Willcox & Gibbs commercial sewing machines are still made and used in the 21st century.

Those machines are chain stitch ...made in steel
Singer come later with cap machine as they named ,chain stich too like a miniature of the original singer.All the model 24-2 -26 -33 -36 were used for millinery ,caps,ties.

I own my 8 millinery machines since 1988 with parts and attachements …

3 willcox & Gibbs straw machines

3 Bulaski (2 straight,1 zig zag)

2 Singer model 24 -33

As milliner i learn on blocks and machines to make hats at a large scale production but always in a certain standard of quality ...